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Spurs and the Great West

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nrobertb
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Re: Spurs

#331 Post by nrobertb » Sat May 12, 2018 10:14 pm

There are many breeds of draft horses, but everyone knows the Clydesdales from the beer commercials.

The Clydesdale is a breed named for and derived from the farm horses of Clydesdale, a county in Scotland. Although originally one of the smaller breeds, it is now a tall breed. Often bay in color, they show significant white markings due to the presence of sabino genetics. The breed was originally used for agriculture and haulage, and is still used for draft purposes today. Members of the breed are used as drum horses by the British Household Cavalry.

The breed was developed from Flemish stallions imported to Scotland and crossed with local mares. The first recorded use of the name "Clydesdale" for the breed was in 1826, and by 1830 they spread throughout Scotland and into northern England. Thousands of Clydesdales were exported from Scotland and sent throughout the world, including to Australia and New Zealand, where they became known as "the breed that built Australia".
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Re: Spurs

#332 Post by nrobertb » Sun May 13, 2018 10:10 am

The Shire is a British breed of draft horse. It is usually black, bay, or grey. It is a tall breed, and Shires have at various times held world records both for the largest horse and for the tallest horse. The Shire has a great capacity for weight-pulling, and has been popular throughout its history for pulling brewer's drays delivering ale to customers. The horses may also be used for forestry, for riding and for commercial promotion.

In 1878, the British organisation now known as the Shire Horse Society was created, with the American Shire Horse Association beginning in 1885. The breed was exported from Britain to the United States in large numbers during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, but popularity fell as mechanization increased, reaching a low point in the 1950s and 1960s. Popularity began to increase again in the 1970s and after.
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Re: Spurs

#333 Post by nrobertb » Sun May 13, 2018 12:47 pm

The Belgian horse or Belgian draft horse, also known as Belgian Heavy Horse, is a draft horse breed from the Brabant region of modern Belgium. It is one of the strongest of the heavy breeds.

The Belgian Heavy Draft horse stands between 16.2 and 17 hands (66 and 68 inches_). On average the Belgian grows to weigh slightly over 2,000 pounds. Most American Belgians are a light chestnut with a flaxen mane and tail. The head is relatively small and well shaped. American Belgians in North America are not as large as the European Brabant but of a similar build.

Currently, the world's tallest horse is a Belgian Draft horse named Big Jake, a gelding born in 2000. He stands 20.2 3⁄4 hands (82.75 inches) tall.

The world's largest Belgian Draft was named Brooklyn Supreme. He weighed 3,200 lb and stood at 19.2 hands (78 inches).
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Re: Spurs

#334 Post by nrobertb » Sun May 13, 2018 5:29 pm

The Percheron is a breed of draft horse that originated in the Huisne river valley in western France, part of the former Perche province from which the breed takes its name. Usually gray or black in color, Percherons are well muscled, and known for their intelligence and willingness to work. Although their exact origins are unknown, the ancestors of the breed were present in the valley by the 17th century. They were originally bred for use as war horses. Over time, they began to be used for pulling stagecoaches and later for agriculture and hauling heavy goods. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, Arabian blood was added to the breed. Exports of Percherons from France to the United States and other countries rose exponentially in the late 19th century.

Before World War I, thousands of Percherons were shipped from France to the United States, but after the war began, an embargo stopped shipping. The breed was used extensively in Europe during the war, with some horses being shipped from the US back to France to help in the war effort. In the 1930s, Percherons accounted for 70 percent of the draft horse population in the United States, but their numbers declined substantially after World War II. However, the population began to recover and as of 2009, around 2,500 horses were registered annually in the United States alone. They have been crossed with several light horse breeds to produce horses for range work and competition. Purebred Percherons are used for forestry work and pulling carriages, as well as work under saddle, including competition in English riding disciplines such as show jumping.
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Re: Spurs

#335 Post by nrobertb » Mon May 14, 2018 12:08 am

The Suffolk Horse, also historically known as the Suffolk Punch or Suffolk Sorrel, is an English breed of draft horse. The breed takes the first part of its name from the county of Suffolk in East Anglia, and the name "Punch" from its solid appearance and strength. It is a heavy horse which is always chestnut in color.
Suffolk Punches are known as good doers, and tend to have energetic gaits.

The breed was developed in the early 16th century, and remains similar in type to its founding stock. The Suffolk Punch was developed for farm work, and gained popularity during the early 20th century. However, as agriculture became increasingly mechanized, the breed fell out of favor, particularly from the middle part of the century, and almost disappeared completely. There has been a resurgence in interest, and population numbers are increasing. As well as being used for farm work, the breed pulled artillery and non-motorized commercial vans and buses. It was also exported to other countries to upgrade local equine stock. Today, they are used for draft work, forestry and advertising.
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Re: Spurs

#336 Post by nrobertb » Mon May 14, 2018 8:42 am

Here's another old pair of chaps.
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Re: Spurs

#337 Post by nrobertb » Mon May 14, 2018 3:35 pm

The Dutch Draft is a breed of heavy draft horse. It is massively built and calm in temperament; it has good stamina. It was bred in the early twentieth century in the province of Zeeland, and may for that reason be known as the Zeeland. It derives from cross-breeding of local Zeeland mares with the Belgian Ardennes and Brabant breeds, to which it is very similar.
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Re: Spurs

#338 Post by nrobertb » Mon May 14, 2018 11:24 pm

Here's a gal leg bit with slobber chains. The copper roller in the center is to help the horse's tongue slide over it easily.
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Re: Spurs

#339 Post by nrobertb » Tue May 15, 2018 10:36 am

A pair of Kelly spurs.
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Re: Spurs

#340 Post by nrobertb » Tue May 15, 2018 4:13 pm

These spurs not only have the gal leg but also the whole gal!
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Re: Spurs

#341 Post by nrobertb » Tue May 15, 2018 11:10 pm

The Arabian or Arab horse is a breed that originated on the Arabian Peninsula. With a distinctive head shape and high tail carriage, the Arabian is one of the most easily recognizable horse breeds in the world. It is also one of the oldest breeds, with archaeological evidence of horses in the Middle East that resemble modern Arabians dating back 4,500 years. Throughout history, Arabian horses have spread around the world by both war and trade, used to improve other breeds by adding speed, refinement, endurance, and strong bone. Today, Arabian bloodlines are found in almost every modern breed of riding horse.

The Arabian developed in a desert climate and was prized by the nomadic Bedouin people, often being brought inside the family tent for shelter and protection from theft. Selective breeding for traits including an ability to form a cooperative relationship with humans created a horse breed that is good natured, quick to learn, and willing to please. The Arabian also developed the high spirit and alertness needed in a horse used for raiding and war.
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Re: Spurs

#342 Post by nrobertb » Wed May 16, 2018 10:12 am

The Grand Prismatic Spring in Yellowstone National Park is the largest hot spring in the United States, and the third largest in the world, after Frying Pan Lake in New Zealand and Boiling Lake in Dominica. It is located in the Midway Geyser Basin.

Grand Prismatic Spring was noted by geologists working in the Hayden Geological Survey of 1871, and named by them for its striking coloration. Its colors match the rainbow dispersion of white light by an optical prism: red, orange, yellow, green, and blue.

The first records of the spring are from early European explorers and surveyors. In 1839, a group of fur trappers from the American Fur Company crossed the Midway Geyser Basin and made note of a "boiling lake", most likely the Grand Prismatic Spring, with a diameter of 300 feet. In 1870 the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expedition visited the spring, noting a 50-foot geyser nearby (later named Excelsior).

The vivid colors in the spring are the result of microbial mats around the edges of the mineral-rich water. The mats produce colors ranging from green to red; the amount of color in the microbial mats depends on the ratio of chlorophyll to carotenoids and on the temperature gradient in the runoff. In the summer, the mats tend to be orange and red, whereas in the winter the mats are usually dark green. The center of the pool is sterile due to extreme heat.

The deep blue color of the water in the center of the pool results from the intrinsic blue color of water. The effect is strongest in the center of the spring, because of its sterility and depth.

To get a sense of its size, note the boardwalk in one photo.
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Re: Spurs

#343 Post by nrobertb » Wed May 16, 2018 4:31 pm

The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named for distinct stone tools found in close association with Pleistocene fauna near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s. The Clovis culture appears around 11,500–11,000 years before present at the end of the last glacial period, and is characterized by the manufacture of "Clovis points" and distinctive bone and ivory tools. Clovis people are considered to be the ancestors of most of the indigenous cultures of the Americas.

Clovis points tend to be thicker than the typically thin later stage Folsom points. A Clovis projectile point was created using bifacial percussion flaking (that is, each face is flaked on both edges alternately with a percussor)

The only human burial that has been directly associated with tools from the Clovis culture included the remains of an infant boy named Anzick-1. Researchers from the United States and Europe conducted paleogenetic research on Anzick-1's ancient nuclear, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosome DNA. The results of these analyses reveal that he is closely related to modern Native American populations, which lends support to the Beringia hypothesis for the peopling of America.
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Re: Spurs

#344 Post by nrobertb » Thu May 17, 2018 9:22 am

Folsom Site or Wild Horse Arroyo, is a major archaeological site about 8 miles west of Folsom, New Mexico. It is the type site for the Folsom tradition, a Paleo-Indian cultural sequence dating to between 9000 BC and 8000 BC. The Folsom Site was excavated in 1926 and found to have been a marsh-side kill site or camp where 23 bison had been killed using distinctive tools, known as Folsom points. This site is significant because it was the first time that artifacts indisputably made by humans were found directly associated with faunal remains from an extinct form of bison from the Late Pleistocene. The information culled from this site was the first of a set of discoveries that would allow archaeologists to revise their estimations for the time of arrival of Native Americans on the North American continent.

The site was found in 1908 by George McJunkin, an ex-slave cowboy and ranch foreman. While riding across the Crowfoot Ranch following the very severe rainstorm of August 27, which had devastated the nearby town of Folsom, he noticed and investigated a number of large bones where flash flooding from that storm had cut deeply into the bed of Wild Horse Arroyo. McJunkin was a self-educated man, with enough interest in geology and archaeology to recognize that the bones were not modern bison, and had been too deeply buried to be recent. For several years he tried to interest field archaeologists to visit the site, with little success. In 1918 he and Ivan Shoemaker, the teenage son of the Crowfoot Ranch's owner, dug bones and a fluted lance point out of the arroyo bank, and sent them to the Denver Museum of Natural History. The museum sent paleontologist Harold Cook to the Crowfoot the following spring, and he and McJunkin did some exploratory digging.
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Re: Spurs

#345 Post by nrobertb » Thu May 17, 2018 3:10 pm

The bones recovered at the Folsom Site were Bison atiquus.

During the later Pleistocene epoch, between 240,000 and 220,000 years ago, steppe wisent (B. priscus) migrated from Siberia into Alaska. This species inhabited parts of northern North America throughout the remainder of the Pleistocene. In midcontinent North America, however, B. priscus was replaced by the long-horned bison, B. latifrons, and somewhat later by B. antiquus. The larger B. latifrons appears to have died out by about 20,000 years ago. In contrast, B. antiquus became increasingly abundant in parts of midcontinent North America from 18,000 ya until about 10,000 ya, after which the species appears to have given rise to the living species, B. bison. B. antiquus is the most commonly recovered large mammalian herbivore from the La Brea tar pits.

B. antiquus was taller, had larger bones and horns, and was 15-25% larger overall than modern bison. It reached up to 7.5 ft tall, 15 ft long, and a weight of 3500 lb. From tip to tip, the horns of B. antiquus measured about 3 ft.

According to internationally renowned archaeologist George Carr Frison, B. occidentalis and B. antiquus, an extinct subspecies of the smaller present-day bison, survived the Late Pleistocene period, between about 12,000 and 11,000 years ago, dominated by glaciation (the Wisconsin glaciation in North America), when many other megafauna became extinct Plains and Rocky Mountain First Nations peoples depended on these bison as their major food source. Frison noted that the "oldest, well-documented bison kills by pedestrian human hunters in North America date to about 11,000 years ago."
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